Study on incidence, risk factors and management of gestational hypertension at a tertiary care hospital

Sriram S., Lalitha R., Abhijath M., Achsah Rose Biju., Alka Thankachan and Anita Jose

Hypertension is the one of the common medical complications of pregnancy and contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study is to study the prescribing pattern of antihypertensives in relation with FDA categories and essential drug list used in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and to study the risk and benefits of various management strategies in the selected study population as per the inclusion criteria. A prospective observational study was conducted. The only resolution for preeclampsia and pregnancy induced hypertension is the delivery of the fetus and placenta. Often medications are used to manage maternal blood pressure and prolong gestation. Although many treatment options exist for hypertension, additional consideration must be utilized when selecting a pharmacotherapeutic agent in pregnancy. The chosen medication must not only be effective and safe for the mother, but also have minimal impact on the development of the fetus. A total of 71 patients were included in the study, their prescriptions were analysed to determine the prescribing pattern and appropriateness.The patients in our study population was categorized as mild 17(23.94%), moderate 44(61.97%) and severe 10(14%). One of the risk factor inducing PIH is the gravidity status and majority of patients were primigravida 39(54.92%) than multigravida 32(45%). Out of 71 patients centrally acting drugs were prescribed more 28(39.43%), followed by beta blockers 19(26.76%), calcium channel blockers in 6(8.45%).The results reveal that, for mild to moderate hypertension, the antihypertensive methyldopa is often recommended. Alternative choices include labetolol and calcium channel blockers. Maternal awareness regarding its complications, management, dietary modifications, life style changes should be facilitated.

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