Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial genetic disorder and studies have found that it affects the salivary gland function and micronutrients. The aim of the study was to assess the Doppler Ultrasonographic changes of major salivary glands in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to correlate it with the quantity of salivary secretion and Serum Magnesium levels.
Materials: The study was conducted on 90 study patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus who were categorized into 3 groups of 30 each namely Group A (well controlled), Group B (moderately controlled) and Group C (poorly controlled) based on the HbA1c levels and 30 normal individuals as controls. Doppler ultrasonography was used to assess the horizontal and vertical dimensions of major salivary gland and the vascularity of the glands. The ultrasonographic measurements of parotid and submandibular gland were tabulated. Serum magnesium levels and salivary quantity were calculated and compared with ultrasonographic changes.
Results: The mean horizontal and vertical dimensions of parotid glands were 4.1±0.3*4.2±0.3 cm (Group A), 4.4±0.4*4±0.5 cm (Group B), 4.7±0.5*4±0.5 cm (Group C), in Group A,B,C respectively and 3.1±0.3*2.9±0.3cm in controls. The range of mean value of submandibular gland was 2.5±0.3*2.6±0.3cm (Group A), 2.9±0.3*2.9±0.3cm (Group B), 3±0.1*2.9±0.2 cm (Group C), in Group A,B,C respectively while 2.7±0.1*2.5±0.1cm in controls which was highly significant with p value of < 0.01. The mean values of salivary flow in Group A,B,C were 0.37±0.15, 0.320.37±0.15, 0.10.37±0.12 and that of controls were 0.380.37±0.15 ml/min. Magnesium levels were 1.83 ± 0.3mg/dl, 1.25±0.32mg/dl, 1.13±0.37mg/dl in group A,B,C respectively and that of controls were 1.83±0.3mg/dl.
Conclusion: To conclude, increased HbA1c levels were associated with increased ultrasonographic measurements and decreased levels of serum magnesium and salivary flow.