This study intends to find out systematically the various pathological condition presenting with lymphnode enlargement in neck and various modes of clinical presentation to arrive an etiology. In this study, 75 children between the age group 1 year to 12 years with significant cervical lymphadenopathy attending the Deparrtment of Paediatrics, RMMCH, Chidambaram were studied. In the present study, majority are in age group 4 – 8 years (47%) followed by 8 – 12 years (26.6%). Common etiologies in patients with lymphadenopathy were tonsillitis or pharyngitis in 34.6%, tuberculosis 13.3 %, ear infections 8%, scalp infections 18.6%, oro dental infections 8% and malignancy 3%. Tuberculosis remains the leading cause among specific systemic diseases producing chronic cervical lymphadenopathy. Duration of lymphnode enlargement, site and distribution, character of the node and presence of organomegaly, contact history and Mantoux test were taken into account. Sensitivity of FNAC in diagnosing TB cases was 68.75%. Out of 16 cases with suspected TB lymphadenopathy, Fine Needle Aspiration ans cytology diagnosed 10 cases with clinical correlation, ESR was increased in 27 cases and chest X ray suggestive in 13 cases.