Clinico-epidemiological study of dengue in a tertiary care hospital of west bengal, india

K Sarkar., Gonjhu D., Pal S and N Pramanik

Background: Dengue fever is one of the world’s important viral hemorrhagic fevers, most geographically widespread of the arthropod-borne virus illnesses, caused by Arbo virus of Flavi-virus genus with 4 serotypes. A large population live in dengue-risk regions with about millions new cases each year worldwide. West Bengal has been experiencing the problem of dengue outbreak since long. Dengue Infection can present as a very diverse presentation. This study was done to study the clinical and epidemiological profile of dengue in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata
onconsecutive 100 serologically diagnosed dengue cases admitted from 1st August 2016 to 31st October 2016.The serological diagnosis was done using Rapid Immunochromatographic Card Test (RICT) in the Virology laboratory of the hospital. Detection of at least one component (NS1, IgM orIgG) was considered to be positive for sero-diagnosis. A pre-designed Proforma was used to collect information from the hospital records.

Results: Majority of cases 52% were of Dengue fever (DF) according to WHO classification. Male (59%) preponderance was noted among the cases. Fever was the presenting symptom in all cases followed by vomiting(61%) and headache (49%). Hepatomegaly seen in 31% cases and hepatitis was seen in 27% cases. The mean platelet count was lower than normal values in all the cases.

Conclusion: Detection of large number of cases in a short duration signifies high incidence rate. Dengue should be suspected in all cases presenting with symptoms like fever, vomiting, headache and even in diarrhoea. Rash may not be present, as seen in classical dengue fever. DF is more common than dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The use of Dengue RICT helps in the prompt and early diagnosis and management of the case and prevent complications of the dengue. Altered liver function is very usual for dengue fever and sometimes it is used to prognosticate the course of illness. But precise indicator for complication is not yet available.

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