Bioactive materials used for root end filling-a review

Seema Jadhav., Varsha Pandit., Tejonmayie Yedekar., Kanchan Hegde and Rajlaxmi Patil

The periradicular pathosis develops when there is exposure to bacteria, due to inadequate apical seal, complex anatomic variations in the roots such as non negotiable dilacerated roots, extensive canal calcifications, non negotiable parallel canals, internal or external root perforations, immature apex development, accessory canals wherein apical seal of the root canal cannot be obturated. So there is a need to treat the apical end of the root in such cases. An ideal material to seal the root-end cavities should hermetically seal the apex & prevent leakage of microorganisms and their by-products into the periradicular tissues. It should also be non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, be biocompatible with the tissue fluids, non resorbable, impervious to dissolution by tissue fluids, closely adapt to the dentinal walls of root end preparation, be radiopaque and dimensionally stable.
The bioactive materials were introduced as root end filling material due to its superior sealing ability, promotion of cementogenesis, & biocompatibility forming a hermetic seal inside the root canal. This article focuses on physical properties of root end filling materials.

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